(2) Premature atrial contractions
(3) Pindex is defined as the standard deviation of P-wave duration across the 12 leads and may reflect the heterogeneity of diseased atria.
(4) Maximum duration of the P-wave
(5) Premature ventricular contractions
The association between a high Pindex and AF risk was particularly strong in patients younger than 60 years (Hazard ratio of 5.3) and older than 90 years (Hazard ratio of 7.4). The researchers conclude that the Pindex, a measurement of disorganized atrial depolarization, is one of the strongest predictors of future atrial fibrillation. Perez, MV, et al. Electrocardiographic predictors of atrial fibrillation. American Heart Journal, Vol. 158, No. 4, October 2009, pp. 622-28 Editor's comment
: The finding that a Pindex > 35 ms confers a 5-fold increase in the risk of developing afib among people below the age of 60 years may be of particular interest if future research establishes a correlation between Pindex and certain lifestyles, environmental or dietary factors. The authors of the paper make this interesting comment – "Atrial fibrillation has been growing at a pace rapid enough to be labeled an epidemic". Perhaps the medical research fraternity needs to address the question "WHY?" with greater vigor!